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1 Corinthians Chapter 6
1 Corinthians 6:9 - 10 Know
ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be
not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor
effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, Nor thieves, nor
covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor
extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.
Nature of 1 Corinthians:
1 Corinthians is a specific epistle, not a general epistle. A general epistle is often thought to be written to all Christians in all eras of time. That is not the case for specific epistles, which were letters written to specific people or churches about concerns that are specific to that person or church. Paul wrote the letter to a specific church. The letter of 1 Corinthians was not really intended to be a letter for all churches. We are not 100% sure about the nature of the problems that Paul is addressing, because we do not have a copy of a letter of concerns sent to Paul by a person attending the church in Corinth. We need to be very cautious when making applications from a letter written to the church in Corinth to all of Christianity over 1,900 years later.
Problematic Translations - Arsenokoites:
Arsenokoites, which is translated as homosexual in some translations of this passage,
is a very problematic word. The word appears to be a combination of a word that means man and a word that means bed. When the two words are joined together, it does not necessarily mean the definition of the new word is a combination of the meanings of the two words added together. In other words, this does not mean man bed.
The word butter, a common spread used on bread, added to the word fly, an insect, does not mean a stick of butter that has wings and can fly. Daniel Helminiak notes that the word ladykiller does not mean a person who kills ladies. The term refers to men who know how to charm and seduce women. There is no certainty that arsenokoites means men having sex with men.
The range of meanings of arsenokoites is diverse, so we are left
trying to make an educated guess as to the exact meaning. Problems understanding
the precise meaning of the word arsenokoites is complicated by the fact that the word
is only used twice in the New Testament. A few theologians believe that Paul coined, or made up, the word arsenokoites. We have very few records of this word being
used in secular documents, so we are left guessing some about the meaning.
Ann Nyland, who translated
The Source New Testament, has expertise in New Testament Greek
and in ancient, secular Greek. She does not translate the Greek word arsenokoites,
because she feels there is "no ready English translation." Nyland, in footnotes to her
translation, states a verb form of the word appears in the Sibylline Oraclest
is used in the context of extortion and murder. She says that one way a sixth century
astrologer used the term is to describe those who rape women.
A case can be made that the Greek word arsenikoites is a
reference to the worship of other gods. During the New Testament era, the
city of Ephesus enjoyed the reputation of having male prostitutes serving
the in temples dedicated to other gods. The second edition of Tyndale's New
Bible Commentary notes that the some people believe the Greek
word arsenikoites, which some Bible translations say is homosexual, might be
"restricted" to male prostitutes. Leon Morris, in the Tyndale New Testament
Commentary on 1 Corinthians observes, "The inclusion of idolaters may
point us to the immorality of much heathen worship of the day." When
commenting on immorality and unchastity, Charles Errdman, in his
commentary on 1 Corinthians indicates, "The
practice of impurity formed a feature of idolatrous worship."
Problematic Translations - Malakoi:
Some people think the word malakoi might apply to gay and bisexual men. Malakoi has multiple meanings. In the context of 1 Corinthians 6:9, the Greek word malakoi appears to mean effeminate. Theologian Rembert Truluck holds that the word malakoi has "no sexual implications," being translated as soft in reference to the clothing of a king in Matthew Chapter 11 and Luke Chapter 7, and as illness in Matthew Chapters 4 and 9. Malakoi can mean "soft, weak, or vulnerable." The Greek word malakoi "literally means soft or lacking in self-control." One meaning associated with malakoi is "coward." Spiritual cowardice and lack of self-control are not pleasing to God.
There are a wide range of translations of this verse. Biblical linguists see
enough differences in meaning that one needs to be very cautious when
applying this passage to gay people. Given the fact that one expert in ancient
Greek feels there is no real English translation for one of the words that is
translated as homosexual in some versions of the Bible, this passage should
not be used to condemn gays or bisexuals. A few of the different translations
Good News Bible - Surely
you know that the wicked will not possess God's Kingdom. Do not fool
yourselves; people who are immoral or who worship idols or are
adulterers or homosexual perverts or who
steal or are greedy or are drunkards
or who slander others or are thieves---
none of these
will possess God's Kingdom.
Bible - What! do you not
know that the wicked will not inherit the Realm of God? Make no mistake
about it; neither the immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers not
catamites nor sodomites nor thieves nor the lustful nor the drunken nor
the abusive nor robbers will inherit the Realm of God.
Revised Standard Version - Do
you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do
not be deceived! Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, male prostitutes,
sodomites, thieves, the greedy, drunkards, revilers, robbers - none of
these will inherit the kingdom of God.
Modern Standard Version Or do you not know that
the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God?
Do not believe lies. The lewd, idolaters, adulterers, male temple prostitutes,
child molesters, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor
slanderers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God.
The Modern Standard Version translates the passage
as male temple prostitutes, and child molesters. Within the context of this passage, the Modern Standard Version translation seems to be more accurate.
Information about the Modern Standard Version Bible
Theme is Idol Worship, Not Homosexuality:
There are strong overtones of idol worship in the themes
of this passage. One of the groups of people criticized in this passage is
adulterers. Easton's Bible Dictionary indicates that idol
worship and apostasy are spoken of as "adultery spiritually" and refers people
to passages such as Jeremiah 3:6, 8-9 and Revelation 2:22. According to the
Easton's Bible Dictionary an apostate congregation is an
adulteress and informs us that in some Biblical passages some Jews are called
"an adulterous generation". Another group attacked in this passage are fornicators.
Easton's Bible Dictionary says fornication "frequently" refers to
either "forsaking" God or "following" idols. Before the appearance of any words
that are translated as homosexual, three words with strong association with
the worship of other gods appear in the passage. The theme of worshipping other
gods continues in the last portion of this chapter.
1 Corinthians 6:15-20 Know ye not that your
bodies are the members of Christ? shall I then take the members of Christ, and
make them the members of an harlot? God forbid. What? know ye not that he
which is joined to an harlot is one body? for two, saith he, shall be one flesh.
But he that is joined unto the Lord is one spirit. Flee fornication. Every sin that
a man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth
against his own body. What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the
Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?
For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your
spirit, which are God's.
The well-known Bible commentator Matthew Henry comments that Corinth
was "famous" for the sin of fornication. Corinth's fame may have been due
to the importance of the goddess of love Aphrodite. Some Bible commentators,
such as William Barclay, believe there were 1,000 prostitutes for Aphrodite
in the city. Barclay notes that in the ancient world Corinth was widely associated
with debauchery. The Catholic Study Bible comments that the
word prostitute used in this portion of 1 Corinthians 6 may be a reference
"specifically to religious prostitution."
A Christian's body is in union with the Holy Spirit. A physical and sexual union
with a temple prostitute was an act of worship to another god. These verses
could be making the point that the physical bodies Christians belong to God,
because the Spirit resides in the Christian. When a person has sex with a
temple prostitute, which was often the case with either fornication or adultery,
a person has made a spiritual union with another god. The Christian cannot
be in union with both God and another god at the same time.
Given the strong theme in 1 Corinthians 6 of worshipping other gods, there is a
very good possibility that this chapter is not addressing individual sexual sins
and homosexuality. The chapter appears to be looking at the bigger issue of
sex as an act of worship of other gods and as an act of spiritual union with other gods.
Gay Christians do not express their love for each other as an act of
worship to idols. Because gay Christians are not worshipping idols,
this text does not appear to condemn gay Christians.
Application for Queer Community:
Reflect for a moment on the notes mentioned by Blbical commentators.
The Catholic Study Bible indicates these verses may be in reference
to religious prostitution or as a symbol of any sexual relationship
that conflicts with Christ's claim over us. These verses are a call
to gay and straight Christians to maintain only relationships that
strengthen their relationships with God. Any relationships, be they
sexual or non-sexual, that weaken our bonds with Christ should
be terminated. Relationships at work that harm our connection
with God need to be changed. And relationships with
abusive churches, with churches that threaten the relationships gay
Christians have with God are to be abandoned.